The revelations provoked widespread outrage. The Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey announced that the state would be launching an investigation. Residents deserve answers immediately from Facebook and Cambridge Analytica, she said on Twitter.
The Democratic senator Mark Warner said the harvesting of data on such a vast scale for political targeting underlined the need for Congress to improve controls. He has proposed an Honest Ads Act to regulate online political advertising the same way as television, radio and print. This story is more evidence that the online political advertising market is essentially the Wild West. Whether its allowing Russians to purchase political ads, or extensive micro-targeting based on ill-gotten user data, its clear that, left unregulated, this market will continue to be prone to deception and lacking in transparency, he said.
Simon Milner, Facebooks UK policy director, when asked if Cambridge Analytica had Facebook data, told MPs: They may have lots of data but it will not be Facebook user data. It may be data about people who are on Facebook that they have gathered themselves, but it is not data that we have provided.
Cambridge Analyticas chief executive, Alexander Nix, told the inquiry: We do not work with Facebook data and we do not have Facebook data.
Wylie, a Canadian data analytics expert who worked with Cambridge Analytica and Kogan to devise and implement the scheme, showed a dossier of evidence about the data misuse to the Observer which appears to raise questions about their testimony. He has passed it to the National Crime Agencys cybercrime unit and the Information Commissioners Office. It includes emails, invoices, contracts and bank transfers that reveal more than 50 million profiles mostly belonging to registered US voters were harvested from the site in one of the largest-ever breaches of Facebook data. Facebook on Friday said that it was also suspending Wylie from accessing the platform while it carried out its investigation, despite his role as a whistleblower.
At the time of the data breach, Wylie was a Cambridge Analytica employee, but Facebook described him as working for Eunoia Technologies, a firm he set up on his own after leaving his former employer in late 2014.
The evidence Wylie supplied to UK and US authorities includes a letter from Facebooks own lawyers sent to him in August 2016, asking him to destroy any data he held that had been collected by GSR, the company set up by Kogan to harvest the profiles.
That legal letter was sent several months after the Guardian first reported the breach and days before it was officially announced that Bannon was taking over as campaign manager for Trump and bringing Cambridge Analytica with him.
Because this data was obtained and used without permission, and because GSR was not authorised to share or sell it to you, it cannot be used legitimately in the future and must be deleted immediately, the letter said.
Facebook did not pursue a response when the letter initially went unanswered for weeks because Wylie was travelling, nor did it follow up with forensic checks on his computers or storage, he said.
That to me was the most astonishing thing. They waited two years and did absolutely nothing to check that the data was deleted. All they asked me to do was tick a box on a form and post it back.
Paul-Olivier Dehaye, a data protection specialist, who spearheaded the investigative efforts into the tech giant, said: Facebook has denied and denied and denied this. It has misled MPs and congressional investigators and its failed in its duties to respect the law.
It has a legal obligation to inform regulators and individuals about this data breach, and it hasnt. Its failed time and time again to be open and transparent.
A majority of American states have laws requiring notification in some cases of data breach, including California, where Facebook is based.
Facebook denies that the harvesting of tens of millions of profiles by GSR and Cambridge Analytica was a data breach. It said in a statement that Kogan gained access to this information in a legitimate way and through the proper channels but did not subsequently abide by our rules because he passed the information on to third parties.
Facebook said it removed the app in 2015 and required certification from everyone with copies that the data had been destroyed, although the letter to Wylie did not arrive until the second half of 2016. We are committed to vigorously enforcing our policies to protect peoples information. We will take whatever steps are required to see that this happens, Paul Grewal, Facebooks vice-president, said in a statement. The company is now investigating reports that not all data had been deleted.
Kogan, who has previously unreported links to a Russian university and took Russian grants for research, had a licence from Facebook to collect profile data, but it was for research purposes only. So when he hoovered up information for the commercial venture, he was violating the companys terms. Kogan maintains everything he did was legal, and says he had a close working relationship with Facebook, which had granted him permission for his apps.
The Observer has seen a contract dated 4 June 2014, which confirms SCL, an affiliate of Cambridge Analytica, entered into a commercial arrangement with GSR, entirely premised on harvesting and processing Facebook data. Cambridge Analytica spent nearly $1m on data collection, which yielded more than 50 million individual profiles that could be matched to electoral rolls. It then used the test results and Facebook data to build an algorithm that could analyse individual Facebook profiles and determine personality traits linked to voting behaviour.
The algorithm and database together made a powerful political tool. It allowed a campaign to identify possible swing voters and craft messages more likely to resonate.
The ultimate product of the training set is creating a gold standard of understanding personality from Facebook profile information, the contract specifies. It promises to create a database of 2 million matched profiles, identifiable and tied to electoral registers, across 11 states, but with room to expand much further.
At the time, more than 50 million profiles represented around a third of active North American Facebook users, and nearly a quarter of potential US voters. Yet when asked by MPs if any of his firms data had come from GSR, Nix said: We had a relationship with GSR. They did some research for us back in 2014. That research proved to be fruitless and so the answer is no.
Cambridge Analytica said that its contract with GSR stipulated that Kogan should seek informed consent for data collection and it had no reason to believe he would not.
GSR was led by a seemingly reputable academic at an internationally renowned institution who made explicit contractual commitments to us regarding its legal authority to license data to SCL Elections, a company spokesman said.
SCL Elections, an affiliate, worked with Facebook over the period to ensure it was satisfied no terms had been knowingly breached and provided a signed statement that all data and derivatives had been deleted, he said. Cambridge Analytica also said none of the data was used in the 2016 presidential election.
Steve Bannons lawyer said he had no comment because his client knows nothing about the claims being asserted. He added: The first Mr Bannon heard of these reports was from media inquiries in the past few days. He directed inquires to Nix.